Articles

The Mitragyna speciosa Kratom tree grows naturally throughout Southeast Asia, yet little is known of its traditional consumption outside of Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar/Burma, countries which have mentioned...
The dual nature of Mitragyna speciosa Kratom’s effects places it in a category of its own, and the common pharmacological classification of Kratom as a “non-opioid narcotic” does not accurately reflect this...
Kratom is the vernacular name given to a tree, Mitragyna speciosa indigenous to Southeast Asia (Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, P.N.G. and elsewhere) as well as to the psychoactive preparations...
At low doses, Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is stimulating, the more sedating effects being brought about by more opioid receptors binding as the dose range moves up. If this stimulant level of Kratom is very...
The term “narcotic” is based on the Greek word “narcosis”, the term used by Hippocrates for the process of benumbing, benumbed or sedated state. A “narcotic” substance refers to agents that benumb or...
The term “sedative”, or “sedative-hypnotic” refers to a class of substances that depress the central nervous system (C.N.S.), which induces a state of calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness,...
The term “opiates” refers to the narcotic alkaloids extracted from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum ) pods and latex, and sometimes to their semi-synthetic counterparts. These alkaloid’s narcotic activity...
Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors that have opioids as ligands: a substance that is able to bind to and form a complex with a biomolecule, in order to serve a biological purpose....
The vernacular term Kratom refers to the Mitragyna speciosa var. Korthals tree and the products derived from its leaves, which concentrate the plant’s active principles. The botanical classification of...
Recently Mitragyna speciosa Kratom has been successfully cultivated outside of its traditional / indigenous growing area, from seeds then, more frequently, from cuttings. Growing Mitragyna speciosa Kratom...
Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is most commonly classified as a “non-opioid narcotic”, yet this classification only partially reflects the effects of Kratom, which also has notable stimulant effects. Through...
The Mitragyna species are very rich in active compounds, and over 40 alkaloids have already been isolated in the leaves of its various species. Mitragyna speciosavar. Korthals has over 25 reported active...
Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid with the molecular formula C23H30N2O4. It is the most abundant active alkaloid in the plant Kratom plant Mitragyna speciosa, and was therefore first thought to be...
Mitragynine was once thought to be Mitragyna speciosa Kratom’s main active ingredient, yet more recently it has been found that the main active constituent is in fact more likely to be the potent 7-hydroxy...
Most of the alkaloids identified in Mitragyna speciosa Kratom are Yohimbe-type indoles and oxindoles. The most abundant alkaloids consist of three indoles and two oxindoles, and some indoles such as...
This level has been compared to the effects of a mild opiate, such as codeine or a less complex poppy-tea. At this Kratom dosage, one is less sensitive to stress, physical or emotional pain, pretty much on...
The term Kratom refers to the Mitragyna speciosa tree, but also mainly to this tree’s leaves when used as a psychoactive or medicine, and their derived products such as crude extracts. The most common...
With the development of Kratom trade, some Kratom “strains” or denominations have become common. These strain names were created or chosen according to a wide range of factors, such as actual geography /...
The Internet fuelled a globalisation of Kratom’s availability, and has also lead to some mistakes or even abuse by vendors. Fake Kratom is said to have been widely sold in the past, notably under the name...
The following common forms and preparations of “true” Mitragyna speciosa Kratom can be distinguished: Leaf form Kratom Traditional Kratom users of Thailand and Malaysia distinguish between different types...
Mitragyna speciosa leaves, with their complex and rich chemical makeup, could easily have various practical applications in modern medicine, or become source of new and useful chemicals, which could be...
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