Pharmacology and mode of action of Kratom

Most of the alkaloids identified in Mitragyna speciosa Kratom are Yohimbe-type indoles and oxindoles. The most abundant alkaloids consist of three indoles and two oxindoles, and some indoles such as mitragynine, paynanthine and others are unique to the Mitragyna speciosa plant. Other indole alkaloids present are found in the whole leaf of the Mitragyna speciosa plant. Two of particular interest are corynantheidine another μ- opioid antagonist also found in Yohimbe, as well as...
Mitragynine was once thought to be Mitragyna speciosa Kratom’s main active ingredient, yet more recently it has been found that the main active constituent is in fact more likely to be the potent 7-hydroxy derivative of mitragynine: 7-hydroxymitragynine First mentioned in a 1994 study paper, 7-hydroxymitragynine is another indole, with the molecular formula C23H30N2O5. While present in the Kratom plant in much smaller quantities than mitragynine (2% of the total alkaloid content in Kratom...
Mitragynine is an indole alkaloid with the molecular formula C23H30N2O4. It is the most abundant active alkaloid in the plant Kratom plant Mitragyna speciosa, and was therefore first thought to be responsible for the plant’s activity, before 7-hydroxymitragynine was looked into, and proved to be much more potent. According to available studies the average alkaloid content of common red-veined leaves of Mitragyna speciosa is said to be about 0.5%, about half of which would be mitragynine...
The Mitragyna species are very rich in active compounds, and over 40 alkaloids have already been isolated in the leaves of its various species. Mitragyna speciosavar. Korthals has over 25 reported active alkaloids. The alkaloid content of the Kratom tree’s leaves varies from place to place, and at different times of the year. Within each location, there is a quantitative variation in alkaloid content from month to month, the indole content seemingly the most stable, while the oxindole...
Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is most commonly classified as a “non-opioid narcotic”, yet this classification only partially reflects the effects of Kratom, which also has notable stimulant effects. Through its phyto-chemistry, pharmacology and psycho-physiological activity, Mitragyna speciosa Kratom shares some elements of the activity of various other substances, including opiates/opioids and yohimbine. Yet Mitragyna speciosa Kratom is really in a league of its own. Indeed, such a broad...
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