Definitions

“Withdrawals” or “withdrawal symptoms”, also known as withdrawal/abstinence syndrome, refers to a series of characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. Withdrawal is connected to forms of physical addiction to a drug, but yet is also sometimes used incorrectly to refer to symptoms that appear after discontinuing a drug or other substance (unable to cause true physical dependence) to which...
The concept of "drug tolerance”, refers to the gradual decrease of a subject’s reaction and sensitivity to a psychoactive substance or drug, implying that progressively larger doses are required to achieve the desired effect. Drug tolerance can involve both psychological drug tolerance as well as physiological factors. Kratom, which has both stimulant and sedative effects, induces a complex mechanism of physical tolerance, in which regular use tends to induce a diminishing of the...
The term “Opioids” is a blanket term used for any drug, including opiates, which are active by binding to the C.N.S. or gastrointestinal tract opioid receptors, thus having an action comparable to that of opiates. It is a broad class of narcotics whose activity comes from their receptor binding action, and includes natural opiates coming from the opium poppy (codeine, morphine) morphines ( heroin or diacetyl-morphine) semi-synthetic opiates (hydromorphone, oxycodone) and fully synthetic...
Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors that have opioids as ligands: a substance that is able to bind to and form a complex with a biomolecule, in order to serve a biological purpose. The opioid receptors are mainly found in the Central Nervous System (C.N.S.) and the gastro-intestinal tract, and include the delta (D) receptors, the kappa (k) receptors and the mu (μ) receptors. Kratom affects mostly the μ (mu) and D (delta) receptors. An opioid binds to specific opioid...
The term “opiates” refers to the narcotic alkaloids extracted from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum ) pods and latex, and sometimes to their semi-synthetic counterparts. These alkaloid’s narcotic activity comes from their binding to the brain and gastro-intestinal opioid receptors ( codeine, morphine, heroin…).
The term “sedative”, or “sedative-hypnotic” refers to a class of substances that depress the central nervous system (C.N.S.), which induces a state of calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing. Sedative-hypnotics may be also be referred to as tranquilizers, depressants, anxiolytics, soporifics, or sleeping pills.
The term “narcotic” is based on the Greek word “narcosis”, the term used by Hippocrates for the process of benumbing, benumbed or sedated state. A “narcotic” substance refers to agents that benumb or deaden, and by metaphorical extension those that cause loss of feelings, or sedation. “Narcotics” are usually understood as substances that produce a general sense of well-being, sometimes known as euphoria, deep relaxation, and a reduction of tension and anxiety. Yet this term is often used...
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